The diplomatic relations
between Mexico and Sweden have been characterized by the sharing of a
significant number of common interests, which have been reflected in an active
participation in the international arena, with the aim to promote the pacific
solution of international tensions and to face, in an effective and timely
manner, threats to peace and security, in particular through the promotion of
From its beginning on July
29th 1885, the relations between both countries have been developed
in an atmosphere of cordiality and mutual understanding, with a number of common
positions in foreign policy issues of high-priority for Mexico. For instance, Mexico and Sweden have worked together in
multilateral initiatives, such as disarmament (group of eight countries that
promotes a world without nuclear weapons); combat to drug trafficking (on
Mexico’s initiative, they organized in Stockholm, jointly with Portugal, a
preparatory meeting for the special session of the UN General Assembly); UN
reforms (Group of Sixteen); and the promotion of development in Central America.
As one of the most significant examples of the successful promotion of
joint initiatives, in 1982 the Swedish Alva Myrdal and the Mexican Alfonso García
Robles were awarded the Peace Nobel Prize.
There are a number of
issues of common interest in which Mexico and Sweden have developed diverse
forms of co-operation, such as environment, gender issues, human rights, among
others. Training programmes in
different fields, sponsored by the Swedish International Development Cooperation
Agency (Sida), are open to the participation of Mexican representatives.
In the economic field, the
relation with Sweden has a long history. Companies like Ericsson, with high
international prestige in the area of telecommunications, are present in Mexico
As regards the cultural and
academic matters there is no a formal agreement.
Nevertheless, important activities and programmes have been developed.
Exhibits of famous Mexican artists like Frida Kahlo, and others of pre-Hispanic
and contemporary art have been shown to the Swedish public.
A Program of Internships for Artistic Creation and a Program of High
Level Lectures have also proved of interest for both, artists and academicians.
Special mention deserves the collaboration with the Swedish Foundation
for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT by its
name in Swedish), through which three Workshops have been organized (two in
Mexico and one in Sweden). This
effort involves a group of more than sixty researchers of higher education
institutions of both countries, who have jointly identified –and now are
implementing- several projects in diverse scientific areas. On the other hand,
in the University of Chalmers, in Gothenburg, Mexican researchers have been
studying master degree programs, or have participated in short-term stays or
The good relation between
Mexico and Sweden has also been reflected in high level official visits.
In January 1982 H.M. King Carl XVI Gustav and his wife, H.M. Silvia,
payed an official visit to Mexico. The King was received by the then President
of Mexico, Jose López Portillo, and the encounter was occasion to approach
subjects of international issues of mutual interest, like the North-South
Dialogue and disarmament, as well as subjects regarding the bilateral relation,
in particular on the economic field. More recently, among the most important
official visits the following are to mention: the visit to Sweden of the then
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Rosario Green, in November of 1998; the visit to
Mexico of members of the Commission for Foreign Affairs of the Swedish
Parliament, headed by its President, Viola Furubjelke, in September of 1999; the
visit to Sweden of the then Minister of Trade and Industrial Promotion, Herminio
Blanco, in October 2000, and the visit to Mexico of the Minister of Defense, Björn
von Sydow, as representative of the Swedish government to the sworn in ceremony
of Mr. Vicente Fox Quesada as President of Mexico, in December 2000.
At present, a visit of high-level Swedish businessmen with the aim to
promote Swedish investments in Mexico is envisaged; in addition, it is foreseen
that a Mexican ministerial delegation will visit Sweden in the near future in
order to promote the Mexico-European Union Free Trade Agreement and for 2002
contacts among Mexico and Sweden, at the highest level, are also foreseen.
All these contacts have
laid the foundations to what the bilateral relation will be during the XXI
Century, within the framework of the redefinition of our foreign policy towards
Europe and, specifically, towards the EU, where Sweden has played an important
role, in particular, during the first semester of 2001, when it hold the
presidency of the Council of Ministers of the EU, for which it deserved the
acknowledgement of the rest of the EU countries.
The interest of both countries in strengthening the relation was reflected, in addition, by the signature, in November 1998 in Stockholm, of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Establishment of a Mechanism of Bilateral Political Consultations on Matters of Mutual Interest between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of both countries.
Most of the common
positions and interests between Mexico and Sweden have been reflected in the in
the multilateral fora. Main issues
to mention are:
Drug trafficking: the Governments of Mexico, Sweden and Portugal,
sponsored the international symposium “Global Challenges-Common Solutions”
with the participation of international experts on the problem of drugs. The
Symposium was held in Stockholm on 13-14 May 1998 and it was meant to serve as a
preparatory meeting in support to the XX Special Session of the UN General
Assembly aimed at facing common solutions to the world-wide problem of drugs.
The Symposium was an initiative of the President of Mexico and a joint
declaration was adopted.
Conventional Disarmament: Convention of Ottawa for the Prohibition of
Use, Storage, Production and Transference of Mines Antipersonnel and its
Destruction. Sweden and Mexico collaborated in the multilateral fora in order to
promote the signature of the Convention in December 1997, which came into effect
on March 1st 1999.
Nuclear disarmament: Mexico and Sweden joined the initiative of Ireland
to adopt a declaration on nuclear disarmament, presented in June 1998. In
September 1998 both countries signed the draft resolution “Towards a
Nuclear-Weapon-Free World: The Need for a New Agenda" in which the
necessity of having a new agenda on nuclear disarmament to be considered by the
UNGA is raised.
draft resolution was presented during the 53rd UNGA, was co-sponsored
by 32 delegations and was adopted by majority. On November 1st 2000,
the UNGA First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) voted with big
majority in favour of a resolution supporting the Initiative of the New Agenda,
with 146 votes in favour, 3 against and 8 abstentions; the Initiative received
the support of three of the five nuclear states; EUA, Great Britain and China
voted to favour, whereas France and Russia abstained. Only India, Israel and
Pakistan voted against the resolution.
In February 2000 the First
Workshop of Scientific and Technological Co-operation between Mexico-Sweden was
held in the City of Mexico. It was
attended by ten Swedish and approximately 60 Mexican researchers, who presented
projects within the following areas: environmental and chemical engineering;
mecathronics; telecommunications and information theory; pharmaceutics;
biotechnology and food technology and; inter-institutional cooperation. These
fields were identified as some of the ones in which the bilateral cooperation
could be useful, given the necessities and the relative advances of the
disciplines in both countries.
In the workshop
participated, by the Mexican part, the following institutions: UNAM, IPN,
CINVESTAV, University of Guanajuato, University of Guadalajara, Iberoamericana
University and ITESM. The Swedish part was represented by four universities:
Lund, Umeå, Stockholm and the Technological University of Chalmers, Gothenburg. In addition, the representatives of both countries had
opportunity to initiate negotiations towards the subscription of
The Second Workshop took
place in September 2000, sponsored by the Technological University of Chalmers
and was attended by 30 Swedish and 30 Mexican researchers coming from ten
Mexican universities and research centres, and eight Swedish institutions.
The Third Workshop was held
in Querétaro on 1st and 2nd
October 2001. It was sponsored by the Council of Science and Technology
of Querétaro (CONCYTEQ) in collaboration with the authorities of the University
of Querétaro and public institutions of the State. It was an important occasion
to analyse the status of the projects and to define the next steps for their
follow-up. It is foreseen that the
Fourth Workshop will be held in the city of Umeå, Sweden, in 2002.
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation with Norway and Sweden. -
Signed on July 29th 1885.
Agreement for Visa Suppression in Ordinary Passports.- by means of
exchange of Notes in Mexico City, on April 21st 1954. It came into
effect on May 1st 1954.
Agreement for Coordinated Action to Implement the Alliance for Production
Program, signed between the Ministry of Turism of Mexico, Nacional Hotelera, S.A.
and the Swedish Maritime Company Torline Aktiebolag. Signed on May 24th
1975 in Stockholm, Sweden.
Protocol for the Cooperation in Industrial Development. Signed in 1979.
Memorandum of Understanding establishing the Joint Commission of Economic
and Industrial Cooperation. Signed in 1980.
Memorandum on Industrial and Economic Cooperation. Signed in Stockholm,
on May 24th 1980.
Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation. Signed in Stockholm,
on May 24th 1980. Approved by the Senate on October 16th
1980, published in the Official Bulletin on October 31st 1980. It
came into effect on 4th of December 1980.
Agreement of Technical Cooperation in the fields of Electrical Industry.-
between the Swedish State Power Board and the Electicity Federal Commission.
Signed in Stockholm, on 6th January 1982.
Program of Cooperation for Training of Mexican Engineers between the
National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico and the Swedish Commission
for the Technical Cooperation. Mexico, January 18th 1982.
Agreement on Cooperation between the State of Yucatan and the City of
Malmö, Sweden. Signed in 1987.
Agreement for the Suppression of Diplomatic and Official Visa to Sweden.
Celebrated by unilateral decision of the Government of Mexico.
It came into effect by Exchange of Notes on December 6th 1990.
Agreement to Prevent Double Imposition and Fiscal Evasion on Income
Taxes. Subscribed in Washington D.C., on September 21st 1992.
It came into effect on January 1st 1993.
Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs for
the Establishment of a Mechanism of Consultations in Matters of Mutual Interest.
Subscribed in Stockholm, on November 26th 1998.
Agreement between the Government of the Mexican United States and the
Government of Sweden for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments
(APPRI).- it was signed in Stockholm on October 3rd 2000 and it came
into effect on July 1st 2001.
|Rafael Zubarán Capmany||
|Rodolfo Arturo Nervo||
|José María de la Garza||
|9||Vito Alesio Robles||1925-27|
|12||Alfonso de Rosenzweig Díaz||1933-35
|13||Carlos Darío Ojeda||1935-36
|14||José Pérez Gil y Ortiz||1936-37
|16||Luciano Joublanc Riva||1941-45
|17||Francisco J. Aquilar||1945-47|
|18||Salvador R. Guzmán||1948-50
|20||Amalia de Castillo Ledón||1954-58
|21||Víctor Alfonso Maldonado||1958-60
|23||Carlos Gutiérrez Macías||1963-69
|25||Guillermo Calderón Martínez||1971-74
|26||Francisco Castillo-Nájera Calvillo||1974-77
|28||Juan José Bremer||1982 (may-dic)
|30||Agustín García López Santaolalla||1988-91|
|31||Jorge Pinto Mazal||1991-94
|33||Javier Barros Valero||
|34||Jorge Castro-Valle K.||
|35||Fernando Estrada Sámano ( designated)|
* The fact that two Chiefs
of Mission were designated during the same period is explained because of the
internal divisions existing during the years after the Revolution, in the term
of office between the Presidencies of Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregón.
In April 1920 the Agua Prieta uprising against Carranza and his
government took place, concluding with his assassination in May 1920.